Harmful effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides

Harmful effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides

Harmful Effects Of Chemical Fertilizers

Plants need soil nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur for their growth. However, when crop seedlings are harvested, soil nutrient levels may decrease over time, as nutrients do not return to the soil. Therefore, these essential nutrients are compensated either by the natural process of decay, when the plants die and rot, and the nutrients extracted from the soil return to the soil, or by an easy way of adding fertilizer.
Fertilizers are substances used to add nutrients to the soil to increase soil fertility and increase plant growth. Fertilizer has become essential for modern agriculture today to feed the growing population. The use of fertilizers, in particular, chemical fertilizers have brought blessings to humanity, helping to prevent starvation and death in different parts of the world. Chemical fertilizers increase crop yields; Their overuse has hardened the soil, reduced fertility, strengthened pesticides, expelled polluted air and water and greenhouse gases, endangering human health and the environment. It has already been proven that chemical fertilizers pose a serious challenge to sustainable growth and balance. Accordingly, scientists and researchers appear to be arguing in favor of organic fertilizers as the best solution to prevent soil pollution and many other threats to the environment. And life due to overuse of chemical fertilizers. Since salt is the most authentic property of chemical fertilizers; They will be a barrier to long-term farming because soluble foundations are as harmful to plants as soil. Continued use of these chemical fertilizers destroys the essential nutrients and minerals in the soil that are naturally found in fertile soil. When we use chemical fertilizers; They do not help to supplement the soil and its fruitful fertility, which is contrary to mainstream thinking; But, just renew potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. And we know that phosphorus does not dissolve in water and its overuse can harden the soil. Similarly, alkaline fertilizers like sodium-nitrate create salinity in the soil which reduces its fertility and makes it infertile. So to speak; Soil fertility and vegetation depend on a balanced supply of essential nutrients and minerals. Thus, overuse of certain nutrients can lead to an imbalance in the supply of nutrients in the soil and as a result the soil can deteriorate and the stable soil balance is disturbed.

Harmful effects of chemical fertilizers on human health

Harmful effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides (including effects on non-target organisms) have become an important factor of concern with the expansion of human population and rapid industrialization. As a consequence, there has been a growing interest in methods to minimize their effect on both the environment and human health.
In the context of human health, the effects of chemical fertilizers are serious, with their direct toxic effects or with indirect effects that are related to the depletion of nutrients in the plants eaten. Nitrosamine exposure has been reported to play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, according to a study conducted at the Warren Alpert Medical School at Brazen University. This exposure is caused by a chemical reaction between nitrates and secondary amines or proteins and causes DNA damage, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation, which together increase cellular degeneration and death. While nitrite is used in all processed and preserved foods, it is widely used in fertilizers and is a major component of polluted water. Thus, researchers have suggested safe and effective measures to eliminate the use of nitrates in food, reduce the amount of fertilizers and nitrates in water used to irrigate crops, and finally, to detoxify food and water before human consumption. Several other studies showing the role of chemical fertilizers in Alzheimer's disease have confirmed these findings. Toxic levels of cadmium and aluminum in the soil due to the use of chemical fertilizers also play a role in the process and pathophysiology of Alzheimer's, according to another group in Hungary. Generally speaking, an abundance of exploration proposes that chemical fertilizers represent a danger to human wellbeing and add to the advancement of ongoing infection.
One of the main strategies is the reduction in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. However, their use is also being continuously reduced because of the need to be more sustainable. Another approach is the development of new crops and varieties able to use the residual nutrients from the first application and therefore needing less fertilizers and pesticides, or at least less active substances. However, the most studied and applied strategy to reduce or eliminate the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is the use of biological agents, which have been used for hundreds of years in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. Biological agents can be classified in three broad categories: biofertilizers, biofungicides and biopesticides. Agroecosystems are extremely complex and their effects cannot be predicted on a long-term basis. This means that chemical fertilizers and pesticides should be used in the most economical way, following the "pollution prevention principle" introduced by the Green Revolution. Application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides affects all parts of the plant, as well as the organisms directly involved in nutrient absorption. Therefore, chemical fertilizers and pesticides can produce negative effects on human and animal health. Furthermore, the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can have many positive or negative effects on the environment, affecting all the components of the ecosystem. Biological control methods and other alternative methods to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides have been the subject of studies for decades. The current interest in these methods is mainly because of the use of these technologies in the European Union. These programs are included in the European Union's Sustainable Farming Scheme, Sustainable Use of Pesticides and Biocontrol, Bio Fertilizers and Soil Conditioners. In addition to the current EU programs, a new trend is emerging, which uses biological methods in the context of sustainable production. The results of studies on the use of biological control agents (BCAs) and chemical control agents in the control of diseases and insect pests in agriculture, horticulture and forestry are reviewed in this book. In the majority of cases, the use of BCAs and chemical control agents has been successful and positive. In many cases, the use of BCAs and chemical control agents is cheaper than that of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. In some cases, the use of BCAs and chemical control agents has proven to be cost-effective, particularly when it is used in combination with other measures to maintain soil fertility. In general, the use of biological control agents is more effective when the use of chemicals has been banned, if available, or when the use of chemical pesticides is prohibited. In this book, various alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides are presented. A brief overview of the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and alternatives is presented. The use of biological control methods and biological fertilizers is described in more detail in other books in this series. The focus of this book is on alternatives to pesticides. For each alternative, the advantages, disadvantages, problems and the future of this technology are discussed. The main types of BCAs and biological fertilizers that are used are also presented. The review of BCAs and chemicals has been done by searching the database PubMed for articles that describe studies on the use of BCAs or chemical control agents in plant protection, and comparing these studies with similar studies on the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The information gathered from this review forms the basis for the different sections in this book. In each section, the most important studies on the use of pesticides and chemicals and the use of biological control agents and biological fertilizers are presented. This also includes studies on the use of chemicals, biological control agents and biological fertilizers in organic farming. Each section also presents the main conclusions of the studies and lists practical examples.

# Key points

* Chemical pesticides and fertilizers have become the principal tools for soil management. * Pesticides are considered to be chemicals that reduce or inhibit plant growth. * Chemical fertilizers are the nutrients that are added to the soil that are required for plant growth. * There are a wide variety of chemical pesticides that can be used in agriculture. * Pesticides are considered to be harmful to people, animals and the environment. * The use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers is associated with a number of problems and hazards. * For agricultural use, chemical fertilizers must be produced and supplied on a large scale in order to supply the desired amount of nutrients to the soil. * Chemical pesticides may be hazardous to both people and the environment. * Chemical pesticides cause changes in the structure of the plant cell membranes, which is often irreversible. * Pesticides kill beneficial organisms like insects, weeds and microorganisms that are required for healthy plant growth and the health of the soil. * Pesticides are applied directly onto plants, usually on their foliage and stems. * Pesticides can damage plants, soil, soil organisms and the environment. * Although chemical pesticides can be applied in a variety of ways, farmers prefer to use sprays, dusts and aerosols. * Organic farming is a system of cultivation that does not use chemicals for soil management, pest control and plant protection. * Organic farming is a more sustainable way to farm and is more beneficial for the environment, animal health and human health. * Organic farming involves low chemical input, high use of animal manure, and the re-application of manure for fertilizer. * A large proportion of the food consumed by the people of the world comes from organic farms. * Over 200 million hectares of land in the world have been converted into organic farmland, resulting in a greater availability of organic food. * Organic farming relies on biological and natural methods for maintaining soil fertility, pest and disease control. * Organic farming does not use chemicals for managing weeds, pests or disease and relies on natural and biological methods. * Farmers using organic methods grow the same crops year-round using the same seed stock and are not constrained by the seasons. * Organic farming does not use synthetic pesticides, chemical fertilizers or genetically modified organisms.


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