With water scarce, Pakistan helps farmers grow more with less

With water scarce, Pakistan helps farmers grow more with less

With water scarce, Pakistan helps farmers grow more with less

water scarce


MARI, Pakistan, Sept 30 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Obaid ur Rehman hoped to grow water-scarce cucumbers and capsicum peppers on land he'd bought in an arid area of eastern Pakistan - but the available water wasn't sufficient for traditional irrigation.

So the 56-year-old farmer tried something new: A drip irrigation system, supported by a government initiative.

The system delivers small amounts of water only where needed, and has helped him get higher yields on his farm near Mari, in Punjab province than on flood-irrigated land he owns elsewhere in the province.

The switch, besides allowing him to farm with 60% less water, has cut the fertilizer he needs in half as less is washed away and wasted, Rehman said.

"I have received drip irrigation as a divine help in this water-scarce area," he said, sitting in a shed on his farm.

Rehman is among a growing number of Pakistani farmers who are turning to water-saving drip irrigation and sprinklers, which agricultural experts say can support yields in regions where seasonal rains are no longer a reliable source of water.

Pakistan uses 90% of its water for agriculture, mainly as farmers flood their fields to irrigate their crops, said Pervaiz Amir, director of the Pakistan Water Partnership (PWP), a non-governmental organization.

A nine-year government effort to cut water waste, launched in 2012-2013, has so far helped 7,000 small-scale farmers make the move to water-efficient irrigation, said Malik Muhammad Akram, head of the Punjab Agriculture Department's water management program.

'MORE CROP PER DROP'

Over the past 30 years, Pakistan has gone from a country enjoying an abundance of water to one facing increasing water stress. website

Between 1990 and 2015, the amount of water available per person dropped from just over 2,170 cubic meters to about 1,300 cubic meters, according to a 2017 report by the United Nations Development Programme.

That was the result of rapid population growth, urbanization, industrialization and water-intensive agricultural practices, combined with growing climate impacts, the report said.

Agriculture today contributes about one-fifth of Pakistan's GDP, according to a study published last year by the World Bank.

But Muhammad Arif Goheer, an agriculture expert at the Global Change Impact Studies Centre in Islamabad, a climate change think-tank, said changing patterns of monsoon and winter rains are a big problem for rain-fed farms in arid areas.

Increasingly, farmers either do not get rain when they need it or get too much rain when their crops need dry conditions, he said.

But access to water-efficient irrigation can give farmers in arid regions a reliable water source and also allow them to grow high-value crops, such as olives and grapes, that often require more water, Goheen said.

The Punjab government's 67.5 million rupees ($407,300) project provides subsidies for small-scale farmers to install sprinklers and drip irrigation systems, some using solar power to run them.

With the motto "more crop per drop", the Punjab Irrigated-Agriculture Productivity Improvement Project, run in partnership with the World Bank, aims to have new irrigation systems installed on 120,000 acres of farmland by next year.

Akram, of the agriculture department, said so far 66,000 acres of land have been switched to water-efficient systems.

Nearly half of that was barren land that has been put back into use as a result of the project in three water-scarce areas - Potohar, Thal, and the Cholistan - he said.

Work has already started on converting another 11,000 acres of land over to new irrigation methods, he added.

On average, drip irrigation and sprinkler systems use at least 50% less water than flood irrigation, Akram said.

water-scarce

But sprinklers and drip irrigation do not work for all farmers, noted Amir of the PWP.

After farmers lay the pipes for the irrigation systems, they must remain undisturbed for four or five years because digging them up and moving them is so expensive, he explained.

With vegetable and orchard farming, farmers can leave the pipes where they are, but for other popular crops - like rice, wheat and cotton - pipes need to be removed for ploughing and land preparation prior to each new crop, he said.

According to Amir, only 4-5% of all the agricultural land in Pakistan is used for vegetables and fruit orchards.

Farmers who grow low-value crops also struggle to afford water-efficient irrigation systems, even with government subsidies, he said.

But installing the systems can allow farmers to grow higher-value crops that bring in more income, Amir said.

Pakistan's agriculture industry is worth about $50 billion but could be worth seven times that much if farmers switch to water-saving techniques and better-earning crops, and the government helps build better access to export markets, he said.

"We need to switch to more high-value crops, like olives, using this technology," he said.

At Rehman's farm in Mari, two artificial ponds that can hold a total of more than 3.6 million gallons of rainwater, plus a cement water-storage tank, now provide enough water to supply his 20-acre (8-hectare) drip irrigation system year-round.

"I always feel pleasure when I see the new blossoms of my vegetables in the morning," he said, as he inspected ripe capsicum peppers on his farm.

But "this farm would not have been possible without the drip irrigation system", he added.

($1 = 165.7000 Pakistani rupees) (Reporting by Imran Mukhtar; Editing by Jumana Farouky and Laurie Goering. Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers the lives of people around the world who struggle to live freely or fairly. Visit website

Water is an under-used weapon in the climate change fight

Water is an under-used weapon in the climate change fight

Water is an under-used weapon in the climate change fight

watershed


Water is an under-used weapon in the climate change fight. Unfortunately it is usually wasted, or at least poorly used. Unlike carbon emissions, which have other, more tangible uses, water is underutilized. In an effort to do something useful with water we are drilling ever deeper wells in our efforts to find water. Today, water-driven agriculture is producing large amounts of water-thirsty produce and corn. Between 2001 and 2008, farmers produced an additional 48 billion gallons of irrigation water annually to increase agricultural production, most of which was wasted, and now we are struggling to catch up with existing water-production needs. Another consequence of the development of groundwater is the increased water-pollution associated with droughts. I recently read a wonderful article that discussed the devastating impact that a drought can have on our water resources. Because we rely so heavily on freshwater aquifers, climate change can take years or even decades to fully impact the water supply. Currently, drought is causing some water resources to reach drought stress levels, and water-management agencies have to make the difficult decision of whether to open the dam gates to replenish groundwater supplies or let the water run out.


Due to the persistent drought, groundwater levels are likely to decline substantially in California over the next few years. The ability to properly replenish groundwater levels and sustain the water supply will depend on some clever engineering. Thanks to a little creativity, California may be able to properly sustain water-supply levels that will enable agricultural production and climate-adapted water-conservation strategies to continue in the face of climate change. The basic idea is that we can employ multiple ways to reverse the impacts of groundwater depletion: 1. reclaim more water from the wetland: 2. develop a new water-conservation strategy: 3. reduce water usage: 4. reduce our carbon-emissions footprint. I am certain that there is a range of innovative water-supply-management strategies, and even some creative changes to existing water-use strategies, that will enable us to do something useful with our increasingly limited freshwater resources.


I am hopeful that the recently released California Drought and Water Resources Master Plan will give us the directions and guidance we need to transition to a better way of managing our water resources. As the climate changes and droughts become more severe, we need to do more to make our water-resources management strategy more sustainable. Our current method of using groundwater to manage our water supply is a valuable resource, but it will only be useful if we are willing to adapt and learn more efficient ways to use it.


The risk of letting our water resources evaporate before able to properly manage them is enormous. Even when water is plentiful and safe to use, the failure to properly protect it through drought-management practices can be devastating for our agricultural and water-conservation efforts. As climate change brings more droughts, we will need to work harder to help the planet. This may mean that we need to reach for unconventional ways to conserve our precious resources. Thanks to the brave, courageous people who are working to protect our water-resources, we still have some time to develop the innovative solutions that will help us successfully transition to a more climate-adapted future.


Senior Librarian Kara Miller is working with an interdisciplinary group of scientists, groundwater experts, environmental planners, and water-quality specialists to advance water-conservation strategies in California and to reduce our greenhouse-gas emissions.


Water Resources Data Access


Here are some resources that will be helpful if you are interested in learning more about California groundwater.


Conservation Science Learning Team


Government agencies and organizations actively working to manage groundwater resources can be found at these offices and organizations. For example, the Division of Water Resources manages surface-water resources for many local agencies and communities and groundwater resources for the Central Valley and Southern California. The Bureau of Reclamation manages groundwater resources for other states and regions. The Division of Water Resources is responsible for groundwater management for the State Water Resources Board and local water agencies.


The Division of Water Resources has established a public website that is useful for learning about groundwater resources and how they are managed. The website contains information about groundwater resources for the entire state, but you can access a lot more specific information about water resources in specific regions at the division's regional websites. Below is a table of all the resources available. If you need information about your area, the link to that resource is highlighted. Some resources are available to the public, some to state agencies, and some to other organizations.


Water crisis builds in Egypt as dam talks falter, temperatures rise

Water crisis builds in Egypt as dam talks falter, temperatures rise

As the dam's talk diminished, rising temperatures lead to a water crisis in Egypt

Water crisis

Egypt's water consumption grew over 20 per cent in the last decade alone, while the water supply has been shrinking. This resulted in a mass shortage of water with the country's surrounding regions at risk of running out. While Egypt is a water rich nation, the magnitude of the crisis is nearing a critical point. Egypt may experience a water crisis similar to that of Iraq. Given the ongoing water crisis, Egypt faces the ever-increasing need for an expansion of its water supply and reliable means of water distribution. It also faces the increasing possibility of an increase in water shortages, including risks of water scarcity due to water rationing and water shortages linked to natural hazards.


A crisis such as this can destabilize the Egyptian economy and lead to a water crisis in Egypt and its surrounding regions. While the water crisis could potentially be a long-term problem, Egypt is already dealing with a water crisis, which is having negative effects on its environment. In fact, Egypt's water crisis began in earnest in 2007 when a drought caused the water level of the Nile River to decrease. While Egypt has an estimated 30-40 per cent share in the Nile's waters, Egypt may be in danger of a major water crisis that impacts its economy and water distribution. This is especially apparent in Egypt's southern region, which is already facing its own water shortage crisis that impacts its agriculture and its water distribution system.

The poor state of Egypt's water distribution system may lead to a water crisis that threatens Egypt's economy.

As Egypt's water crisis worsens, water quality will deteriorate, as will the agricultural capacity of the agricultural fields surrounding Egypt's water distribution system. Water quality is particularly of concern in Egypt, given that Egypt is the third largest exporter of wheat worldwide and its agricultural land is highly dependent on water resources. Despite the drought, Egypt's water supply also depends on water imported from countries in the region and the situation in Egypt is further complicated by other water crises in the surrounding region. In addition, the security crisis that Egypt has been facing in recent years has resulted in the destruction of the water infrastructure of the country. As the water crisis worsens, Egypt will increasingly be forced to rely on water from countries that also suffer from drought conditions. A significant increase in water pollution due to the increasing extraction of the water by farmers and development projects around water infrastructure in Egypt is also a key factor that is likely to intensify the water crisis in Egypt in the near future. Another key factor is the rise in the demand for water in Egypt, which is also expected to rise due to population growth. According to various studies by the Egyptian Water Utilities Corporation (EWUC), Egypt's population is expected to grow by 10 percent in the next 15 years, and an additional 3 million people will be added to the population by 2030. As a result, the demand for water in Egypt is increasing. Meanwhile, the water supply in Egypt is decreasing as the existing water reservoirs are increasingly becoming polluted and the water distribution system will struggle to provide drinking water to the growing population of Egypt. There is also the need for urgent action to reduce the temperature in Egypt, as Egypt's water distribution system is at risk of freezing in the winter. According to some studies, the Egyptian temperature increased by about one degree Celsius in the last decade. Furthermore, as the climate change is affecting the weather and water distribution in Egypt, the temperature is also expected to rise and the water supply will be disrupted during the winter, particularly in Egypt's northern region. As Egypt's water distribution system is in crisis, the risk of water freezing during the winter will increase. Further research in the area of water crises is therefore necessary to develop effective climate and water conservation strategies that can reduce the risks and prepare Egypt for climate change.

Storm-Water Management Systems An Overview

Storm-Water Management Systems An Overview

Storm-Water Management Systems An Overview

Storm-Water Management

Developing stormwater management plans is a key component of public works for providing services to the community. Many communities focus on ways to protect the safety of people who live in the immediate vicinity of creeks, streams and other bodies of water through measures such as "dry ditch systems," and flood management. With the coordination of numerous streams, tributaries and rivers, additional creeks, rivers and lakes can be treated and prevented from flooding.

Viable living is moderately making an emphatic comeback. The recent revolution in the ecosystem has inspired several folks to take part in finding alternative methods of consumption and production. Many years of natural misuse have been followed to the late disaster of incredible scale. Therefore, individuals are presently discovering approaches to give cunning solutions for long-lasting issues.

Collected stormwater during rain is one of the issues for which a few homes are currently equipped with the storm-water management system that empowers the owners to reuse rainwater that would overall be dumped into the sewage system. In this way, the owner's reliance on water management service providers can be significantly decreased.

Storm-water is water that comes from rain and is snow that melts and runs off lawns, streets, and other sites. Once this water is absorbed into the ground, it is refined and finally replenishes aquifers or flows into rivers and streams. However, in developed zones, impervious surfaces like roofs and pavement keep precipitation from regularly drenching into the ground. Rather, the water runs quickly into storm channels, sewer systems, and seepage dump and can bring about:

  • Destruction to habitat
  • Streamflow hydrograph changes
  • Downstream flooding
  • Contaminated coastal water, rivers, and streams
  • Overflows of combined sewer
  • Damage to infrastructure
  • Streambank erosion
  • Turbidity increases from erosion

Why manage stormwater?

The traditional storm-water management system has been centered on gathering storm-water in piped systems and transporting it off-site as fast as could be allowed, either straightforwardly to a stream or waterway, to an extensive storm-water management basin, or to a consolidated sewer system streaming to a plant for wastewater.

Wet weather green infrastructure and LID (low impact development) address these issues through a range of techniques such as thoughtful landscape planning, strategic site design, and measures to control the sources of runoff.

The wet weather green infrastructure surrounds approaches and innovations to infiltrate, capture, evapotranspiration, and reuse stormwater to manage or restore natural hydrologies. LID, on the other hand, focuses to fix natural watershed functions with the help of small-scale treatment at the runoff source. In order to have effective storm-water management systems, it has to have at least six basic elements including a catchment zone where rainfalls. There are several systems that use roofs to catch rain, but other surfaces like landscaped areas and pavements may be used rather.

After then collected water from the catchment area is transferred to the storage area through pipes and channels called a conveyance. Rain that is collected from roofs might contain debris, that's why a storm-water management system is incorporated with a rain washing mechanism to prevent it from reaching the storage tanks. The storage facility of storm-water management may have tanks specifically designed to hold 100 to approx 26000 gallons of rainwater. Stainless steel, polyethylene, fiberglass, galvanized, and even concrete is sometimes used to made rainwater tanks. In some cases to prevent proliferation and algae formation, these tanks are located underground.

PRS-Med is one of the few leading engineering and companies in the world, focused on only one product- geocells. We offer the most durable geocell engineering available today with extensive engineering, economic and .
Modi unveils a plan to tackle water shortage in India & Apos's heartland...

Modi unveils a plan to tackle water shortage in India & Apos's heartland...

Modi unveils a plan to tackle water shortage in India & Apos's heartland...

By Mayank Bhardwaj

NEW DELHI, Dec 25 (Reuters) - Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Wednesday launched a 60-billion-rupee ($842 million) plan to tackle water shortages in the country's seven heartland states where agriculture is a mainstay.

India, the world's second-most populous country, faces the worst long-term water crisis in its history as demand outstrips supply, threatening farm output and overall economic growth in Asia's third-largest economy.

Almost every sector of the $2.6 trillion economies is dependent on water, especially agriculture, which sustains two-thirds of India's 1.3 billion people.

"Water shortages in the country not only affect individuals and families; the crisis also has an effect on India's development," Modi said. "We need to prepare the new India to deal with every single aspect of the crisis."

The plan launched by Modi would help replenish groundwater and boost overall availability in Rajasthan, Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat states, which produce staples such as rice, wheat, sugar and oilseeds.

India is the world's leading producer of an array of farm goods, and nearly 60% of the irrigation for agriculture comes from groundwater, mainly through electric water pumps.

Subsidised electricity gives farmers an incentive to pump out more water, a key reason behind fast-depleting water tables in the vast country.

Supplying clean drinking water to millions of poor people and reviving moribund irrigation projects were a key part of Modi's policies for India, where the monsoon accounts for nearly 70% of the annual rains needed to water farms and recharge aquifers and reservoirs.

Nearly half of India's farmland, without any irrigation cover, depends on annual June-September rains to grow a number of crops.

Drinking water is also an issue, as about 200,000 Indians die every year due to inadequate access to safe water and 600 million face high to extreme water stress, according to the National Institute for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog, a think tank chaired by Modi.

According to UK-based charity WaterAid, about 163 million people in India - roughly 12% of the population - do not have access to clean water close to home.

Every summer water shortages tend to be more acute in large cities such as the capital New Delhi, Chennai - a car-making centre dubbed "India's Detroit", and Bengaluru, the country's software capital.

Modi also exhorted farmers to increasingly adopt drip and sprinkler irrigation and use water-management techniques as well as eschewing water-guzzling crops such as rice and sugar cane. ($1 = 71.27 rupees) (Reporting by Mayank Bhardwaj; Editing by Hugh Lawson)

Improve Mining Efficiency With Innovative Mine Water Management Solutions

Improve Mining Efficiency With Innovative Mine Water Management Solutions

Improve Mining Efficiency With Innovative Mine Water Management Solutions


Mine water is a generalised term used to describe water from a range of sources generated from the mining and processing activities.

Mining projects are dependent on a secure supply and mine owners have a responsibility to use water resources in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The primary use of in the mining field is generally related to ore processing and, to a far lesser extent, the mining camp domestic water.

Therefore, with regards to the development of a mining project, problems and associated risks need to be carefully assessed. Detailed management planning from sourcing to its discharge through the various mine processes is best done at the planning stage and is a very crucial component to review during production through to closure stages of mining.

Australia is one of the driest continents in the world, and mining is considered as the thirsty business. In remote areas of the country, water can be both scarce and overabundant, forcing mining operations to continually advance water management techniques and technologies to secure supply, reduce environmental footprint, and ride through bad weather conditions such as flooding, cyclones, and droughts.

Addressing supply and disposal challenges in mining is vital to achieving operational excellence. Water can be sourced from surface or groundwater systems, varying from site to site and depending on the size and location of the mine and volume of needed for different ore types.

Mining operators face tough decisions daily on how to extract and dispose of the water safely and cost effectively, and ensure no pollutants flow out into the environment, for example, lead and uranium contamination.

Mining activities are generally positioned in isolated areas where established water and sewage infrastructure are not readily accessible, and wastewater rich in metals and harmful particles needs intensive treatment.

Water is additionally utilised for drilling, construction, dust suppression to protect air quality, to revegetate restored land, and for the convenience of the workforce. Broadly, the modern mining industry responds to weather conditions through proper planning, particularly with regards to emergency preparedness and workers health and safety.

Mine Water Management planning integrates the mine supply and dewatering problems with all the other elements of the water circuit around the whole site. This needs the development of a mine water balance which is an effective tool to optimise water requirement, re-use and discharge.

Early consideration of mine closure needs should likewise be considered at an early stage to reduce later stage costs, remediation and possible long term liabilities. Considering the Mine Water Management aspects and challenges early in a mining project can result in valuable baseline data and considerable cost savings through the operational time of the mine. Mine Water Treatment and Industrial Wastewater Treatment by Minetek provide efficient and innovative solutions for the mining, oil & gas industry.

Minek provide efficient and planning integrates the mine supply and dewatering problems with all the other elements of the water circuit around the whole site.
Egypt & Apos's fertile Nile Delta threatened by climate change

Egypt & Apos's fertile Nile Delta threatened by climate change

Egypt & Apos's fertile Nile Delta threatened by climate change



Egypt's Nile Delta is the country's agricultural heartland and provides its vital freshwater resources

Lush green fields blanket northern Egypt's Nile Delta, but the country's agricultural heartland and its vital freshwater resources are under threat from a warming climate.

The fertile arc-shaped basin is home to nearly half the country's population, and the river that feeds it provides Egypt with 90 per cent of its water needs.

But climbing temperatures and drought are drying up the mighty Nile -- a problem compounded by rising seas and soil salinization, experts and farmers say.

Combined, they could jeopardise crops in the Arab world's most populous country, where the food needs of its 98 million residents are only expected to increase.

"The Nile is shrinking. The water doesn't reach us anymore," says Talaat al-Sisi, a farmer who has grown wheat, corn and other crops for 30 years in the southern Delta governorate of Menoufia.

"We've been forced to tap into the groundwater and we've stopped growing rice," a cereal was known for its greedy water consumption, he adds.


But climbing temperatures and drought are drying up the mighty Nile

By 2050, the region could lose up to 15 per cent of its key agricultural land due to salinization, according to a 2016 study published by Egyptian economists.

The yield of tomato crops could drop by 50 per cent, the study said, with staple cereals like wheat and rice falling 18 and 11 per cent respectively.

- 'Innovation' -

In Kafr al-Dawar in the delta's north, Egypt's irrigation ministry and the United Nations are working on eco-friendly techniques like solar-powered watering that experts say emit fewer greenhouse gases and could help improve crop yields.

On-site, two farmers wearing traditional galabiya gowns show off shiny new solar panels framed by row after row of corn, barley and wheat.


By 2050, the Nile Delta region could lose up to 15 per cent of its key agricultural land due to salinization, according to a 2016 study

Sayed Soliman, eyes bright and cane in hand, runs a group of about 100 farmers who work a plot of more than 100 hectares (around 250 acres).

The seasoned farmer is delighted. He can now power the pumps that water his field without relying on Egypt's faulty electricity grid and expensive fossil fuels like diesel that are responsible for climate change.

Diesel-powered generators are now only used "when necessary", he says, such as after sunset.

After his success, a neighbouring village is also switching to solar-powered irrigation.

"One of the priorities is innovation... so that Egypt can make the most of its water," says Hussein Gadain, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) representative in Egypt.

"The delta plays an important role in the country's food security."

Ibrahim Mahmoud, head of the irrigation ministry's development projects, said plans were in place to modernise watering systems across the country by 2050.

The strategy, he says, is intended to improve farmers' "environmental conditions, standards of living and productivity".

- 'Life or death -

In Kafr al-Dawar in the delta's north, Egypt's irrigation ministry and the UN are working on eco-friendly techniques

But in a country in the tight grip of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, the Nile Delta and its resources remain an ultra-sensitive topic.

AFP's visit to Kafr al-Dawar was closely supervised by the ministry.

In front of officials, farmers stuck to well-worn talking points about the delta's bounty but politely skirted questions on water scarcity.

Sisi has made the Nile's water a "life or death issue" for Egypt, particularly in the framework of negotiations with neighbouring Sudan, as well as Ethiopia.

Cairo fears Addis Ababa's controversial Grand Renaissance Dam will bring consequences downstream.

Among the eco-friendly techniques being worked on is solar-powered watering

For water management consultant Dalia Gouda, Egypt currently has two priorities when it comes to combatting its water scarcity dilemma: tackling overpopulation and defending the country's interests against Ethiopia's dam.

"There are many interesting projects underway to improve water efficiency," says Gouda.

"Although they are not necessarily designed to combat the effects of climate change, they can only prepare the authorities to deal with them."

America & Apos's farming could be decimated by climate change by 2050

America & Apos's farming could be decimated by climate change by 2050

America & Apos's farming could be decimated by climate change by 2050


Climate change is threatening corn and dairy industries in Northeast America, a chilling study warns. Current climate projections indicate that more warming will occur in the Northeast than other sections of the United States, and that has severe implications for crop and dairy industries by 2050.

The Northeast is predicted to be the fastest-warming region in the contiguous U.S., with average ambient temperature projected to warm by about 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit when the global average temperature goes up by about 3.6 degrees by 2050.

Current climate projections predict that more warming will occur in the Northeast than other sections of the United States, threatening corn production

Rising temperatures in the southern part of the region threaten corn yields, according to Heather Karsten, associate professor of crop production ecology in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.

'If climate projections hold, it will threaten the dairy industry in Lancaster County,' Karsten said. 

'Depending on which climate scenario occurs, we could see severe impacts on corn production in that major dairy area. Lancaster County is looking like it is going to experience more days with extreme temperature stress that will reduce corn yields.'

The researchers used projected climate data from nine different global climate models. 

They analyzed future corn-growing conditions in Syracuse, New York, State College, Pennsylvania, and Landisville, Pennsylvania. 

They calculated the number and timing of expected extreme heat days and crop water-deficit periods.

The researchers found that farmers in Lancaster County may have to plant corn earlier in the year and use irrigation techniques, previously only used in the Midwest, in order to maintain corn yields adequate to sustain dairy farms.


The researchers found that farmers in Lancaster County may have to plant corn earlier in the year and use irrigation techniques, previously only used in the Midwest, in order to maintain corn yields adequate to sustain dairy farms

'We expect Lancaster County to see greater frequencies of daily high temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit during key growth stages, and greater water deficit during corn's reproductive stages,' said Rishi Prasad, an assistant professor of crop, soil and environmental sciences at Auburn University.

'Climate models suggest that the higher temperatures will occur most often later in the growing season, and that's when corn plants are vulnerable - when they are silking, pollen is being formed, the endosperm is dividing and kernels growing.'

The researchers learned that corn in the Northeast near the end of the 21st century will experience fewer spring and fall freezes, and a faster rate of growing-degree-day accumulation with a reduction in time required to reach maturity.

Amazon avoids a union in Alabama, but scrutiny over labor practices is here to stay

Amazon avoids a union in Alabama, but scrutiny over labor practices is here to stay

Amazon avoids a union in Alabama, but scrutiny over labour practices is here to stay



Amazon prevailed Friday in its fight against labour organizing at its Bessemer, Alabama, warehouse, with workers rejecting the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union by a ratio of 2-to-1. The union's definitive loss could be the end of the road for its effort in Bessemer, but the labour fight at Amazon may just be getting started.

The union, which said immediately it would object to the election, argues that Amazon improperly swayed the vote, and it may yet win the chance to redo the election. Whether or not it does, the effort garnered the backing of Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders and words of support from President Joe Biden, becoming a national story that could catalyze future attempts elsewhere -- especially as reports about the working conditions continue to spill out. 

Stay in the know. Get the latest tech stories from CNET News every weekday.

Meanwhile, Amazon is trying to position itself as a leader on labour issues and directing the conversation away from unions. In a statement Friday, the company emphasized its advocacy for a $15 federal minimum wage for the "40 million Americans who make less than the starting wage at Amazon, and many more who don't get health care through their employers." 

Even if no warehouse workers try to organize in the near future, the scrutiny on working conditions at Amazon is likely to get even more intense. The National Labor Relations Board is reportedly considering investigating the company for a possible pattern of unfair labour practices, after receiving 37 complaints of retaliation from Amazon workers who say they were fired or disciplined for organizing walkouts or complaining about working conditions. And Amazon's thousands of workers, called essential during the coronavirus pandemic as they processed orders while risking infection, will likely continue calling attention to conditions they say leave them exhausted, at risk of injury and in fear of losing their jobs.

"People are not going to give up," said Kirthi Kanyalam, director of the Retail Management Institute at Santa Clara University. "They are too big an employer."

A union determined to keep going

It's uncommon for a union to object to a lost election when workers have voted it down by such a wide margin, said Andrew MacDonald, a labour attorney who represents employers but who wasn't involved in the Bessemer election. There's a high cost to running an organizing drive, and a big loss can send a signal that the union has lost worker support. 

But the RWDSU announced its intention to object before the NLRB publicly released its final tally.

"That says to me that they feel strongly," MacDonald said. "It's not over yet."

If the fight keeps going, it could help maintain the union's momentum in organizing efforts elsewhere in the country. RWDSU President Stuart Appelbaum said Friday that the union is already talking about unionizing with workers at other Amazon warehouses. Additionally, the giant union federation AFL-CIO is working with the RWDSU on its unionizing efforts, adding heft and resources to the tiny union's endeavours. Separately, Teamsters organizers are reportedly talking with workers at two Iowa Amazon warehouses about a potential union drive. 

In its fight to redo the Bessemer election, the RWDSU takes issue with Amazon's anti-union tactics, including mandatory employee training sessions that argued against unions and that the RWDSU says were filled with falsehoods. It also criticizes Amazon for pressing the US Postal Service to install a mailbox at the Bessemer warehouse after the NLRB ordered Amazon not to host a dropbox for ballots. 

Read more: Amazon union defeated, pushes for election redo: What you need to know

The union argues that the mailbox, which was a metal cabinet with mail slots leading to locked drawers, and not a clearly marked blue Post Office mailbox, could've given employees the false impression that Amazon was involved in collecting and counting votes. Amazon says only the post office had access to the mailbox. 

Additionally, the city of Bessemer reportedly agreed to a request from Amazon to change the length of the red light at a traffic light near the Bessemer facility. The result was that workers driving away from their shifts wouldn't wait as long at an intersection where union advocates were waiting to talk with them about organizing. Amazon says the change was to address traffic created by almost 2,000 people leaving the facility at shift changes. "It's normal to work with local officials to assess traffic patterns and adjust as needed to reduce the impact on neighbouring communities," a spokesperson said in a statement.

These techniques could give organizers at other warehouses an idea of what they'll be up against. One constant that can lead workers to reject unions is the fear of layoffs and facility closures, said Rebecca Kolins Givan, a professor of management and labour relations at Rutgers. 

That's especially the case in places like Alabama, where Amazon warehouse workers earn almost twice as much as the state's minimum wage of $7.25 an hour. The Bessemer facility brought thousands of jobs with pay higher than $15 an hour to the region. Workers' fear of losing that could make it hard for the union to make its case a second time, and it could also derail other union drives.


The future of labour relations at Amazon

Even if union drives fizzle out, Amazon will still have to face the NLRB and public opinion on its treatment of workers.

Based on 37 complaints from Amazon employees that the company fired or disciplined them in retaliation for organizing walkouts or complaining about working conditions, the NLRB is reportedly considering launching an investigation into Amazon's general practices. Amazon has settled some of the individual cases while saying the company disagrees with the claims. If the NLRB finds Amazon has a pattern of violating labour laws, it could hit the company with fines, however small they may be in proportion to Amazon's 2020 profits of $21.3 billion.

Additionally, the union drive and media attention have put pressure on Amazon to improve working conditions, said Michael Pachter, a financial analyst who follows Amazon for investment firm Wedbush. He added that Amazon would do well to address the complaints workers have made about breaks and job security -- and not simply rely on its wages and benefits as proof that it's doing the right thing.

"It's in everybody's best interest that the company treats the employees right," Pachter said. "If they can do so without a union, that's better for shareholders."

The challenge for Amazon is balancing competing needs: to treat workers well and to maintain control over its warehouse operations, which power the company's promise of two-day delivery. While no company wants to be unionized, Amazon's leadership especially prizes the company's ability to innovate, retail management expert Kalyanam said. 

That shows in the company's history of developing technology to improve its own operations, and then use tech to build a whole new business. The most striking example is Amazon Web Services, the cloud business that currently brings in the majority of Amazon's revenue. Innovations in robotics and automation at Amazon warehouses could potentially create the next big revenue generator.

The company wants to avoid labour negotiations slowing down that process, Kalyanam said, adding that "They would consider that an existential threat."

Amazon seems less concerned about having to pay its workers a bit more. As Amazon pushes for a higher federal minimum wage, it could drive up its own labour costs. If its competitors pay $15 an hour, the company could find itself paying, even more, to attract workers to its facilities. This likely doesn't worry Amazon, though, said Rutgers labour expert Rivans.

"That just demonstrates that this is not about the money," she said, "This is about control."

Read this : Amazon union vote enters final stretch in a watershed moment for the U.S...                                    


11 technologies to eliminate food and or water shortage

11 technologies to eliminate food and or water shortage

11 technologies to eliminate food and or water shortage

water shortage


None of the technologies taken into consideration could address these problems on its own, however, taken into accumulation they could possibly help improve worldwide crop returns by approximately 67 per cent by 2050 while lowering food prices by almost fifty per cent, records IFPRI.

"Advances in innovation stand for one of one of the most effective resources for enhancing returns and or reducing the influence of water shortage as well as environmental change," claimed Shenggen Fan, supervisor general of IFPRI, throughout a press conference to review the report, "Food Safety and security in a Globe of Natural deposit Scarcity: The Role of Agricultural Technologies.".

The impact of doing nothing? As merely one situation, it is estimated that maize plant returns might decline by as high as 18 per cent over that exact same timeframe, making it a lot more hard to feed the world's expanding population. "The price of inactiveness might be substantially negative," said Mark Rosegrant, lead writer of the IFPRI report.

As you might expect, however, fostering these innovations won't happen without sped up economic sector financial investments and or modifications in public policy and framework priorities.

No remedy stands alone.

The 174-page report highlights and also details various scenarios entailing 3 main plants: maize, rice and or wheat. There are 11 advancements taken into consideration, separately and or in combination.

1. Crop defence-- Techniques of managing pests, conditions and weeds.

2. Trickle watering-- Techniques that involve applying water directly around roots.

3. Dry spell resistance-- Plant varieties that could refine offered wetness quicker and that are less susceptible to water deficiency.

4. Warmth tolerance-- Ranges that could withstand or prosper in higher temperature levels.

5. Integrated dirt fertility management-- New plant food and composting combinations.

6. Nitrogen usage effectiveness-- Plants that respond far better to fertilizers.

7. No-till-- Farming that entails little or no dirt disruption and potentially the use of cover plants.

8. Organic farming-- Farming that leaves out manufactured fertilizers, growth boosts or genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs).

9. Precision agriculture-- GPS-assisted, a device to device remedies that integrate information gathered by sensing units with automatic management.

10. Sprinkler watering-- Water supplied through expenses nozzles.

11. Water harvesting: Watering that makes use of planet dams, stations and or other means of routing water toward crops.

"The truth is that no solitary farming modern technology or farming method will certainly provide enough food for the globe in 2050," Rosegrant claimed. "Instead, we need to promote for and make use of an array of these technologies to optimize returns.".

For instance, under finest case scenarios, no-till farming might help improve returns for maize by 20 per cent by 2050, but layering far better irrigation methods into those very same industries could increase that renovation to 67 per cent.

The impact of precision agriculture varies considerably, relying on the plant. When it pertains to boosting production, it is the 4th most reliable technology for enhancing maize yields. But for rice and also wheat, accuracy agriculture rates behind nitrogen-use efficiency and also no-till methods. In general, the record recommends that by applying preciseness farming, worldwide rainfed wheat returns could be enhanced by 25 per cent by 2050. Yet the results vary considerably relying on the crop as well as the region.

"Around the world, the largest production boosts compared with the baseline in 2050 are achieved through no-till and or warmth tolerance for maize, [nitrogen-use effectiveness] as well as [accuracy agriculture] for rice, and non-till and or [precision farming] for wheat," notes the record.

Pointers for range.

From an anecdotal standpoint, younger farmers are particularly curious about precision farming techniques because they have actually grown up around infotech, said Robert Carlson, head of state of the Globe Farmers Organization.

"Every farmer wishes to enhance their lives; they wish to progress; they really want a more safe future," he claimed.

In North The u.s.a, as an example, preciseness agriculture has been specifically useful as an action for fine-tuning plant food placement and or application, aiding farms to minimize expenses. Various other specialists participating in the IFPRI discussion point to effective applications in India and also China as further proof that precision farming may be catching on faster than prepared for.

Encouraging farmers to alter their company practices just to neutralize environmental adjustment or food deficiency is most likely to be a losing disagreement, nevertheless, based on several professionals going over the record. "I would certainly think that farmers would say that they would take on these suggestions based upon whether they will see a return on their financial investment," Carlson said.

One online modelling device for doing that is IFPRI's AgriTech Toolbox, which aids farmers, researchers and also policymakers evaluate how different technology or farming practices might influence farm returns, food prices, natural deposit use, land usage, worldwide profession, malnourishment and also hunger. It covers 10 innovations gone over in the record. Apart from this, you could check out to check out new technologies.

Environmental Management

Environmental Management

Environmental Management

Environmental Management


More and more each public and private agency are usually realizing the significance of environmental management for long-term viability, risk administration, cost-effectiveness, and client relations. This kind of increased emphasis offers led to an increase in requirement for specialists using a strong understanding of sustainability as well as environmental management systems. The green jobs market is increasing quickly and with it the need for highly qualified ecological professionals.

What is Environmental Management?

It is a method of creating standards and also policies to cut back the environmental effect of a firm. An Eco supervision program can be possibly formal or casual, produced by external experts, or informally making use of inner assets.

In general, an environmental supervision program will cover an array of ecological issues, including some if not completely with the pursuing:

• Polluting of the environment & fluff; Environment, wildlife, and habitat influences

&half truths crap; Power intake & fluff; Environmental clean-up as well as removal

&half truths crap; Environmental overall efficiency of contractors and also distributors

&half truths crap; Greenhouse emission pollution levels & half-truths crap; Dangerous squander administration & half-truths crap; Indoor air quality & fluff; Property use styles & half-truths crap; Raw materials use & half-truths crap; Strong waste materials production as well as trying to recycle & half-truths crap; Dangerous substance use & fluff; Wastewater supervision.

• Drinking h2o consumption (interior, outside, as well as in manufacturing or even business procedures) & fluff; Water high top good excellent dimension

The issues paid by a specific organization's environmental management program will depend significantly on the dynamics of the function and also the desired outcomes. Typically, it'll supply the following constructions:& fluff; Audit of current environment activities, waste creation, power and also normal mineral waters use, and other environmental factors &fluff; Development of written procedures as well as treatments as part of a diverse inside environmental coverage.

• Produce benchmarks to store energy and also drinking h2o, shrink emissions as well as pollution, preserve land and habitat, and reduce waste materials creation and chemical substance make use of & half-truths crap; Supply instruction and consciousness regarding staff and stakeholders

• Measure final benefits, which is often employed for ecological accreditation as well as complying with confirming

Benefits of Environmental Management Techniques:

People companies, charities, schools, and also governments in which utilize environmental management systems attain a varied array of advantages, such as:

• Reduced costs regarding waste removal, chemical compounds, normal mineral waters, and energy& fluff; More effective utilization of resources resulting in reduced charges &fluff; Higher devotion from employees as well as shareholders likewise &fluff; Improved general open reputation as well as improved marketing opportunities.

• Decreased danger associated with ecological accreditation and also complying & half-truths crap; Defense against increasing vitality charges and also value fluctuations Though nonetheless a comparatively progressive differentiation technique, environmental management has decided to grow to be enterprise as usual weight loss executives understand the advantages and ramifications of durability.

Decrease of the volume of pollution

Environmental management systems have been utilized to attain lots of advantages. The advantages are gained and also offered through the use of these systems. In addition, some environmental management systems, such as environmental audit, are not just used to evaluate the results of the job done, but they are utilized to evaluate how to do it better. A study carried out by the University of California Berkeley, as an example, was utilized to examine the influence of the environmental management systems that are used in a company. As the evaluation showed, an effective environmental management system boosts the profits of a company since it creates a good relationship with its customers and clients. That is the reason why most of the business organizations adopt the environmental management system to ensure that the best quality and also the most economical benefits are given to their clients.

The environmental management system is vital to sustain the ecological balance, which is vital to the planet. The usage of these systems assists various other environmental systems. An example of this would be that a company that works by recycling has to keep in mind the usage of organic waste. So that they can recycle it, they have to guarantee that they utilize a recycling facility that will do that. An ecological balance is lost when companies do not bother about recycling waste and also instead dump it all in the landfill. This, obviously, causes the loss of all eco-friendly things that could be used in the future. To attain a ecological balance, companies that utilize environmental management system use such systems to conserve, preserve and also make use of resources. Some of the greatest examples of environmental management systems are the usage of water and also water systems, which will certainly assist water conservation, preservation of the environment and also the development of the planet. Furthermore, an integrated waste management system, which is one of the best systems to use, is another good example of an environmental management system. That is since the usage of this system will certainly assist the company in dealing with various other environmental issues.

The use of environmental management system enables companies to manage, conserve and also preserve the environment. The use of environmental management system helps in saving lots of cash. If you will compare an organization that has actually made the commitment to use the environmental management system with an organization that has not, you will be able to identify that the organization that has actually made that commitment is the most economical one. The reason why is very easy to identify. Companies that utilize environmental management system will be able to conserve a great deal of cash and at the same time, save the environment since they will not need to make use of huge amounts of natural resources. The use of environmental management system makes use of natural resources since companies will have the ability to use resources that have actually been conserve a great deal of cash and at the same time, save the environment since they will not need to make use of huge amounts of natural resources. The use of environmental management system makes use of natural resources since companies will have the ability to use resources that have actually been conserved and preserved.

Environmental Management Systems Market Analysis

Environmental Management Systems Market Research has a very competitive structure in the contemporary times. Due to the reason that the need for preserving the environment is high, companies have actually started adopting environmental management system. Furthermore, due to the fact that more and more people are trying to make the best use of resources, it is vital for every company to adopt environmental management system. Some of the benefits that companies will enjoy when they adopt environmental management system are

The usage of waste management system will certainly lower the production costs. One of the greatest benefits of using the waste management system is that the production costs will be reduced since the production will be done in a responsible and also ecological method. If the company will produce by way of non-green and eco-friendly method, it will definitely result to the fact that the production will be done in an unprofessional and unecological way which will in the end affect the quality of the product. 

Part associated with Environment Expert:

Depending upon several aspects, an Eco expert may engage a person who is possibly their own company or a consumer through who they may be getting money for companies. It doesn't matter what the partnership is, keep your pursuing basic individual rules at heart constantly:

Follow every one of the principles developed by legislation:

• Become moral and talk to an attorney or ecological organization,& half-truths crap; Review the situation and continue to know the way the problem was developed and it is existing standing,& luff; Check with other specialists on feasible alternative options.

• Provide recommendations regarding options.

• Manage and handle ecological routines.

• Remove yourself from the problem before letting it move more.

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